The Islamic Golden Age is defined as the era between the 8th and 14th century AD. During this period, Islamic culture, economic, and scientific development was on an exponential rise. The Islamic Golden Age is said to have ended with the Mongol invasion and the subsequent siege of Baghdad that happened in 1258 AD.
Islamic world made huge contributions in the field of mathematics. However, that is not all that the Islamic researchers were able to achieve. We have put together a list of seven amazing Islamic Golden Age Inventions that have shaped the world. Check out the list below and let us know what you think of it;
1. Horizontal-plane Windmills
Although the earliest forms of windmills are credited to the Hero of Alexandria in the 1st Century AD, it wasn’t until the 10th century AD that the horizontal plane windmills were described by Ahmad Y. al-Hassan. These windmills were called panemone windmills and comprised of six to twelve sails that were covered in cloth or reed matting.
2. The Astrolabe And Muslim Astronomers
Astrolabes can be defined as a blend between the planisphere (basic star chart mechanical computer) and dioptra (sighting tube). Put simply; they were navigational aids during the ancient times. According to literary and archaeological evidence, they were invented back in 220 and 150 BC in Greece. However, it was Muslim astronomers that improved the design by incorporating angular scales to the contraption. Circles were also added by them to serve as an indication of azimuths on the horizon. The person credited with these innovations is an 8th-century Muslim mathematician, Muhammad al-Fazari.
3. The Oud
The oud is similar to a lute, short-neck and pear-shaped stringed instrument. It made its debut in the Islamic world during the Golden Age. For a wide majority of the musicians, it is said to be the forerunner to the European Lute. It was the 11th-century Muslim musician Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham who provided the first description of the oud.
4. The Rebab
The rebab is also known as djooza or jawza. It is a kind of stringed instrument that made its debut in the 8th century AD. It is also called a spike fiddle in certain regions of the world.
5. The Marching Military Band
The very first example of using an official military band for non-combat activities comes from the 11th century AD. The said task was carried out by the Ottoman army. The prototype military bands were called ‘Nevbet’ eventually becoming famous as the Mehtaran of the Ottoman Empire.
6. Magnifying Glasses
The Book of Optics by Ibn al-Haytham in the eleventh century AD was the first book that gave a description of the convex lens being utilized for magnification. The book was eventually translated into Latin, thus introducing the concept to Europe during the 13th century.
7. Paper Mills
Although there are pieces of evidence that suggest that paper mills were first introduced in the Islamic world, the said evidence is scarce. What is known is that human and animal powered mills were being used by the Chinese and the Muslims during this time for making paper.